Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with lack of early initiation of breastfeeding within Global Network sites by region for the years 2010 -2013*

From: Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study

  African Sites Indian Sites The Pakistan Site Latin American Sites
  % RR (95% CI), P value % RR (95% CI), P value % RR (95% CI), P value % RR (95% CI), P value
Maternal Age   0.0052   NS   NS   NS
< 20 23.4 1.02 (0.97, 1.08), 0.4577 5.7   3.9   21.8  
20-35 70.6 1.0 94.0   90.7   69.2  
> 35 6. 0 1.09 (1.03, 1.15), 0.0014 0.3   5.4   9.0  
Education   <.0001   0.0003   0.0121   NS
No formal education 6.8 1.19 (0.99, 1.43), 0.0668 11.8 0.95 (0.76, 1.17), 0.6094 82.7 1.05 (1.01, 1.08), 0.0057 10.8  
Primary 63.2 1.16 (1.03, 1.30), 0.0124 25.1 1.24 (0.92, 1.67), 0.1511 7.8 1.04 (1.0, 1.07),0.0250 62.9  
Secondary 27.3 1.06 (0.94, 1.20), 0.3487 48.3 1.03 (0.95, 1.12), 0.4557 6.0 1.0 (0.97, 1.04),0.7766 25.0  
University or higher 2.7 1.0 14.8 1.0 3.5 1.0 1.3  
Parity   0.0013   0.0236   <.0017   <.0001
0 25.9 1.15 (1.01, 1.31), 0.0294 45.2 1.04 (1.0, 1.08), 0.0353 20.5 1.02 (1.01, 1.04), <.0006 30.4 1.19 (1.09, 1.29), <.0001
1-2 38.3 1.0 50.2 1.0 32.5 1.0 37.5 1.0
> 2 35.8 0.94 (0.91, 0.98), 0.0013 4.6 1.16 (1.0, 1.35), 0.0489 47.0 1.02 (1.00, 1.03), <.0610 32.1 0.94 (0.90, 0.99), <.0245
Trimester of first ANC   NS   0.0279   NS   NS
First 6.1   70.3 1.0 24.1   39.4  
Second 65.3   25.4 0.76 (0.58, 0.99), 0.0420 32.1   44.5  
Third 28.6   4.3 0.49 (0.29, 0.84), 0.0093 43.8   16.1  
Delivery mode   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
Vaginal 97.8 1.0 82.2 1.0 85.1 1.0 73.0 1.0
Vaginal assisted 1.0 1.26 (0.97, 1.62), 0.0796 0.7 0.75 (0.33, 1.71), 0.4892 5.5 1.07 (1.03, 1.11), 0.0002 0.1 1.24 (0.71, 2.17), 0.4480
C-section 1.2 2.06 (1.67, 2.54), <.0001 17.1 3.76 (1.77, 7.99), 0.0006 9.4 1.21 (1.13, 1.29), <.0001 26.9 2.26 (1.74, 2.93), <.0001
Birth attendant   NS   0.0001   0.0020   <.0001
Physician 1.9   59.1 1.0 25.3 1.0 57.6 1.0
Nurse/Midwife/HW 48.2   36.5 0.75 (0.55, 1.04), 0.0819 26.6 1.02 (0.97, 1.06), 0.4955 14.6 0.95 (0.69, 1.30), 0.7309
TBA 35.8   2.6 0.87 (0.43, 1.78), 0.7077 46.3 0.95 (0.91, 1.00), 0.0410 27.5 0.56 (0.41, 0.77), <.0004
Family/Other 14.1   1.8 2.22 (1.04, 4.71), 0.0385 1.8 1.0 (0.94, 1.06), 0.9867 0.3 1.37 (1.14, 1.64), 0.0008
Multiple birth   <.0001   NS   <.0001   NS
Yes 1.8 1.65 (1.47, 1.86), <.0001 1.2   2.0 1.08 (1.04, 1.11), <.0001 1.2  
No 98.2 1.0 98.8   98.0 1.0 98.8  
Gender   0.0077       <0.0008
Male 51.6 1.04 (1.01, 1.07), 0.0077 51.9 NS 52.2 NS 51.2 1.07 (1.03, 1.12), <.0008
Female 48.4 1.0 48.1   47.8   48.8 1.0
Birth weight   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
< 1000g 0.0 3.07 (2.09, 4.51), <.0001 0.0 3.32 (1.57, 6.99), 0.0016 0.0 1.29 (1.17, 1.41), <.0001 0.1 2.03 (1.60, 2.57), <.0001
1000-1499g 0.1 2.42 (1.94, 3.02), <.0001 0.4 2.63 (1.83, 3.77), <.0001 0.5 1.08 (0.99, 1.18), 0.0707 0.3 2.25 (1.90, 2.66), <.0001
1500-2499g 3.4 1.48 (1.32, 1.65), <.0001 12.9 1.33 (1.06, 1.68), 0.0134 13.5 1.05 (1.03, 1.08), <.0001 8.4 1.35 (1.23, 1.47), <.0001
≥ 2500g 96.5 1.0 86.7 1.0 86.0 1.0 91.2 1.0
Bag and mask resuscitation   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
Yes 1.6 2.15 (1.78, 2.61), <.0001 3.1 2.22 (1.84, 2.69), <.0001 4.6 1.10 (1.05, 1.15), <.0001 2.4 2.05 (1.74, 2.41), <.0001
No 98.4 1.0 96.9 1.0 95.4 1.0 97.6 1.0
Baby on mother's chest after delivery   <.0001   <0.0001   <.0001   <.0001
Yes 68.4 1.0 60.6 1.0 6.6 1.0 64.9 1.0
No 31.6 1.98 (1.65, 2.37), <.0001 39.4 4.34 (2.67, 7.05), <.0001 93.4 1.67 (1.46, 1.91), <.0001 35.1 3.30 (2.32, 4.68), <.0001
  1. *Poisson multivariable reduced model with generalized estimating equations accounting for cluster; NS = Not significant