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Table 3 Cross tabulations of determinants and reproductive health need at three levels in reviewed publications

From: Unmet reproductive health needs among women in some West African countries: a systematic review of outcome measures and determinants

Category of determinants Reproductive health needs at three levels for married and non-married women
  Antenatal care Contraceptive use Obstetric care
Socio-cultural factors 1. Ethnicity and residence of women 1. Women age and parity 1. Cultural acceptability
2. Cultural viewpoints and beliefs 2. Number of surviving children 2. Social stigma
3. Family unions of women 3. Spousal communication 3. Socio-demographic factors
4. Increasing Parity needs 4. Husband refusal to use, socio
5. Husband/parental influence 5. cultural and religious beliefs,
6. Empowered decision making beliefs 6. desire for large family size
7. Religion (ATR) 7. Desire for their husband attention, love and favor
8. Social factors 8. Marriage status of women
Institutional/clinical factors 1. Access by distance 1. Poor health infrastructure 1. Poor health service infrastructure
2. Economic cost 2. Unfriendly relational attitude of health providers 2. Lack of skilled personnel for obstetric services
3. Geographic inaccessibility 3. side effects of use 3. Place of delivery
4. Poor health infrastructure 4. Method choices available for women 4. Physician inadequate to deliver services
5. Unfriendly attitude of health providers 5. Ineffective leadership in managing and monitoring the demand 5. Optimal organization of obstetric services
6. Unavailability of health staff at facility 6. Poor and inefficient counselling
7. Poorly equipped health infrastructure
8. Type of facility (private/public/Hop/clinics
Economic factors 1. Socio-economic status 1. Socioeconomic status of woman 1. Cost effectiveness in accessing services
2. Household wealth 2. Economic Access for contraceptives 2. Travel cost and distance
3. Cost of accessing delivery services 3. Residence(rural/urban 3. Catastrophic expenditures
4. Women value in society
Knowledge and risk factors 1. Educational Status of women 1. Previous experience 1. Restrictive abortion laws
2. Knowledge of danger signs 2. Fear of side effects 2. Poor knowledge concerning
3. High risk patient risk 3. Educational status of woman 3. Lifesaving skills (LSS) for health staff
4. Risk of associated with utilization of services