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Table 1 Clinical and biochemical parameters of smokers stratified by the number of sticks smoked per day

From: Tobacco smoking is associated with decreased semen quality

Parameters Non-smokers (N = 45) Mild (N = 30) Moderate (N = 30) Heavy (N = 35) p-value
Age (years) 35.0 ± 5.4 35.0 ± 7.4 37.3 ± 7.4 37.6 ± 9.3 0.847
Volume (ml) 3.37 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 0.7a 2.2 ± 0.4b 2.6 ± 0.3c 0.028*
pH 7.70 ± 0.2 7.70 ± 0.3 7.60 ± 0.8 6.80 ± 1.5 0.736
Immobile (%) 7.64 ± 2.3 35.1 ± 9.8a 36.2 ± 8.7b 34.5 ± 10.1c 0.012*
Active (%) 53.76 ± 12.4 48.3 ± 11.7 41.4 ± 13.7b 24.9 ± 9.5c, d 0.034*
Sluggish (%) 10.36 ± 4.5 16.6 ± 6.7a 16.0 ± 5.5b 19.6 ± 7.6c 0.043*
Viability (%) 65.0 ± 14.8 65.1 ± 13.1 60.3 ± 15.7 46.8 ± 17.2c, d 0.284
Morphology (%) 48.40 ± 12.1 43.8 ± 9.5 38.8 ± 10.2b 26.1 ± 10.4c, d 0.038*
Count (sperm/ml) 93.17 ± 22.1 73.6 ± 21.6a 64.3 ± 19.8b 24.5 ± 12.1c 0.041*
PC(cells/HPF) 5.7 ± 1.2 6.9 ± 2.1a 6.2 ± 1.8 6.2 ± 2.7 0.436
EC (cells/HPF) 2.0 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 1.1 2.1 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 0.7 0.865
RBC (cells/HPC) 0.08 ± 0.0 0.1 ± 0.0 0.1 ± 0.0 0.1 ± 0.0 0.973
FSH (IU/L) 8.56 ± 2.8 6.90 ± 2.6a 6.80 ± 2.7b 5.80 ± 2.1c 0.007*
LH (IU/L) 6.24 ± 1.9 6.10 ± 2.4 6.00 ± 1.9 5.60 ± 1.2c 0.439
TT (nmol/L) 18.8 ± 4.6 14.9 ± 3.2 14.5 ± 5.7 13.8 ± 5.6 0.039*
FT (nmol/L) 0.36 ± 0.1 0.27 ± 0.1a 0.26 ± 0.1b 0.24 ± 0.1c 0.021*
Bio T (nmol/L) 8.43 ± 2.9 6.21 ± 2.2a 5.82 ± 2.0b 5.50 ± 1.4c 0.018*
SHBG (nmol/L) 39.6 ± 7.3 41.8 ± 11.6 42.4 ± 5.0 43.2 ± 9.3 0.389
E2 (pg/ml) 23.0 ± 9.2 24.5 ± 9.5 25.3 ± 10.1 25.9 ± 10.8 0.691
PROL (ng/ml) 15.0 ± 3.6 15.1 ± 4.4 16.8 ± 2.8 17.3 ± 3.1 0.352
  1. The results for the clinical and biochemical parameters of the study population
  2. Values are given as mean ± standard deviation. *mean difference is significant (p <0.05). PC pus cells, EC epithelial cells, RBC red blood cells, FSH follicle stimulation hormone, LH luteinizing hormone, TT total testosterone, FT free testosterone, Bio T bioavailable testosterone, SHBG sex hormone binding globulin, E2 estradiol and PROL is prolactin. a p <0.05for corresponding values of mild smokers with controls; b p <0.05 for comparison of moderate smokers with controls; c p <0.05 for corresponding values of heavy smokers with non-smokers; d p <0.05 for corresponding values of heavy smokers with mild smokers