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Table 2 Studies presenting women’s preferences for amenorrhea or other bleeding patterns by percentage of women

From: There might be blood: a scoping review on women’s responses to contraceptive-induced menstrual bleeding changes

Region of study Country of study Author Publication Year Study Population Percentage of Women Preferring bleeding patterns
Amenorrhea/Never Bleeding Other than monthly bleeding or amenorrhea (ranging from 2 months to 1 year) Monthly Bleeding
Africa Nigeria Glasier 2003 Aged 20+ Sagamu: 13% Sagamu: 12% Sagamu: 71%
South Africa Glasier 2003 Aged 20+ Cape Town: 9–36%a Cape Town: 15–27%a Cape Town: 30–49%a
Tunisia d’Arcangues 2011 Aged 18–38
Norplant users
Tunis: 0% Tunis: 5% Tunis: 95%
Americas Brazil Snow 2007 Aged 18–49 ~ 33%b ~ 37%b ~ 25%b
Brazil Makuch 2012 Aged 18–39 65.3% 18.2% 13.5%
Brazil Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 16% 55% n/a
Canada Nguyen 2011 Ages not specified 56%b n/a n/a
Canada Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 15% 38% n/a
Chile d’Arcangues 2011 Aged 18–38
Norplant users
Santiago: 40% Santiago: 13% Santiago: 47%
Dominican Republic d’Arcangues 2011 Aged 18–38
Norplant users
Santo Domingo: 14% Santo Domingo: 2% Santo Domingo: 84%
Mexico Marvan 2009 Aged 20–25 and 40–50
Women aged 20–25 were college students
n/a 66% 34%
United States Andrist (Contraception) 2004 Aged 18–40 59% n/a
United States Andrist (JAANP) 2004 Aged 18–40 57% n/a
United States Edelman 2007 Mean age 27 38% 29% 34%
United States Snow 2007 Aged 18–49 ~ 33%b ~ 45%b ~ 16%b
United States Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 16% 49% n/a
United States Lakehomer 2013 Mean age 21.4
College students
Recent or current contraceptive use
28% 65% n/a
Asia China Glasier 2003 Aged 20+ Hong Kong: 6%
Shanghai: 15%
Hong Kong: 39%
Shanghai: 30%
Hong Kong: 42%
Shanghai: 43%
China Ng 2008 Aged 18–49 5% n/a 70%
China d’Arcangues 2011 Aged 18–38
Norplant users
Beijing: 4.6% Beijing: 10.7% Beijing: 84.7%
India Bhatt 2005 Ages not specified 10–20%d 20–60%d 20–70%d
Indonesia d’Arcangues 2011 Aged 18–38
Norplant users
Jakarta: 5.0% Jakarta: 0% Jakarta: 95%
Europe Austria Nappi 2016 Aged 18–45 32–34%e 27–31%e 37–39%e
Belgium Nappi 2016 Aged 18–45 33–54%e 15–30%e 31–37%e
Czech Republic Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 17% 46% n/a
France Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 17% 38% n/a
France Nappi 2016 Aged 18–45 38–53%e 15–19%e 32–43%e
Germany Wiegratz 2004 Aged 15–19, 25–34, 45–49, and 52–57 Women aged 15–57: 48%b
Women aged 15–49: 41%b
Women aged 15–57: 18%b
Women aged 15–49: 21%b
Women aged 15–57: 24%b
Women aged 15–49: 29%b
Germany Snow 2007 Aged 18–49 ~ 8%b ~ 60%b ~ 30%b
Germany Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 19% 42% n/a
Italy Ferrero 2006 Mean age 36.6 29% 28% 44%
Italy Fruzzetti 2008 Aged 18 to 50 26% 42% 32%
Italy Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 4% 42% n/a
Italy Nappi 2016 Aged 18–45 17–18%e 30–33%e 49–53%e
Poland Nappi 2016 Aged 18–45 14–19%e 37–42%e 44% (no difference between use or nonuse of hormonal contraception)
Spain Nappi 2016 Aged 18–45 19–22%e 30–39%e 42–48%e
Switzerland Merki-Feld 2014 Aged 15–19, 25–34, and 45–49 30% 32% 37%
United Kingdom Glasier 2003 Aged 20+ Edinburgh: 37% Edinburgh: 20% Edinburgh: 33%
United Kingdom Szarewski 2012 Aged 15–49c 19% 52% n/a
  1. aRanges by race and ethnicity
  2. bPercentages were calculated or estimated from information presented in the articles
  3. cExcluded women with no history of contraceptive use that would not consider future use
  4. dRanges by occupation and rural vs. urban location
  5. eRanges by use or non-use of hormonal contraception