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Table 1 Distribution of maternal characteristics, maternal conditions and neonatal conditions by site

From: Evaluating the effect of care around labor and delivery practices on early neonatal mortality in the Global Network’s Maternal and Newborn Health Registry

  Total Zambia Kenya Guatemala Belagavi Nagpur Pakistan p-Valuec
Live births, N 150,848 16,069 13,989 6351 55,909 35,458 23,072  
Parity, N (%) 150,138 16,053 13,772 6350 55,503 35,451 23,009  < .0001
 0 59,938 (39.9) 5052 (31.5) 4623 (33.6) 2496 (39.3) 24468 (44.1) 17202 (48.5) 6097 (26.5)
 1–2 66,095 (44.0) 5972 (37.2) 5222 (37.9) 2268 (35.7) 27,771 (50.0) 17,389 (49.1) 7473 (32.5)
 3+ 24,105 (16.1) 5029 (31.3) 3927 (28.5) 1,586 (25.0) 3264 (5.9) 860 (2.4) 9439 (41.0)
Cesarean delivery, N (%) 150,848 16,069 13,989 6351 55,909 35,458 23,072  < .0001
 Yes 22,810 (15.1) 233 (1.4) 365 (2.6) 2,484 (39.1) 8,183 (14.6) 7,297 (20.6) 4,248 (18.4)
 No 128,038 (84.9) 15,836 (98.6) 13,624 (97.4) 3,867 (60.9) 47,726 (85.4) 28,161 (79.4) 18,824 (81.6)
At least one maternal conditiona, N (%) 150,783 16,060 13,989 6349 55,869 35,445 23,071  < .0001
 Yes 29,146 (19.3) 1,209 (7.5) 3251 (23.2) 1717 (27.0) 7528 (13.5) 5423 (15.3) 10,018 (43.4)
 No 121,637 (80.7) 14,851 (92.5) 10,738 (76.8) 4632 (73.0) 48,341 (86.5) 30,022 (84.7) 13,053 (56.6)
Gestational age < 34 weeks, N (%) 143,669 15,518 12,830 6015 53,381 34,492 21,433  < .0001
 Yes 5,345 (3.7) 1,039 (6.7) 384 (3.0) 115 (1.9) 1,551 (2.9) 987 (2.9) 1,269 (5.9)
 No 138,324 (96.3) 14,479 (93.3) 12,446 (97.0) 5,900 (98.1) 51,830 (97.1) 33,505 (97.1) 20,164 (94.1)
Birth weight < 1500 g, N (%) 150,827 16,069 13,987 6349 55,908 35,451 23,063  < .0001
 Yes 840 (0.6) 51 (0.3) 23 (0.2) 35 (0.6) 295 (0.5) 220 (0.6) 216 (0.9)
 No 149,987 (99.4) 16,018 (99.7) 13,964 (99.8) 6314 (99.4) 55,613 (99.5) 35,231 (99.4) 22,847 (99.1)
At least one neonatal conditionb, N (%) 150,265 15,541 13,986 6332 55,892 35,448 23,066  < .0001
 Yes 14,005 (9.3) 671 (4.3) 1,012 (7.2) 474 (7.5) 4,041 (7.2) 2,015 (5.7) 5,792 (25.1)
 No 136,260 (90.7) 14,870 (95.7) 12,974 (92.8) 5,858 (92.5) 51,851 (92.8) 33,433 (94.3) 17,274 (74.9)
Early neonatal mortality, rate/1000 (95% CI)
 Days 0–6 19.4 (18.7, 20.1) 12.7 (11.0, 14.4) 11.7 (9.9, 13.4) 16.1 (13.0, 19.2) 16.9 (15.9, 18.0) 15.1 (13.8, 16.4) 42.3 (39.7, 44.9)  
 Days 0–1 12.2 (11.7, 12.8) 8.0 (6.6, 9.4) 8.7 (7.2, 10.3) 6.8 (4.8, 8.8) 10.7 (9.9, 11.6) 8.0 (7.1, 8.9) 29.0 (26.8, 31.1)  
 Days 2–6 7.3 (6.8, 7.7) 4.7 (3.6, 5.8) 3.0 (2.1, 3.9) 9.4 (7.0, 11.7) 6.3 (5.6, 6.9) 7.2 (6.3, 8.0) 13.7 (12.2, 15.2)  
  1. aAt least one of the following maternal conditions: obstructed/prolonged labor/failure to progress, major antepartum hemorrhage, major postpartum hemorrhage, evidence of hypertensive disease/severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia or breech/transverse or oblique lie
  2. bAt least one of the following neonatal conditions: congenital anomaly, breathing problems, feeding problems, high fever, hypothermia, convulsions or resuscitated
  3. cWald p-values obtained from log-binomial models using generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster