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Table 1 Operational definitions of variables used in the analyses

From: Contraceptive use and maternal mortality in Indonesia: a community-level ecological analysis

Variable Definition
Contraceptive prevalence rate The proportion of women using a contraceptive method in a given census block = Number of ever married women using contraception divided by the number of ever married women
Contraceptive prevalence category Coded 0 (Low) if contraceptive prevalence was less than 40%, 1 (Middle) if between 40 and 59%, 2 (High) if 60% or above
Proportion of high-risk births: maternal age Coded 0 (Low) if proportion of women below age 20 or above age 40 in census block were less than 5% and 1 (High) otherwise
Proportion of high-risk births: parity Coded 0 (low) if a census block had less than 5% of births to parity 4 or above, coded 1 (Middle) if a census block had ≥ 5% to 25% of births to parity 4 or above, and coded 2 (high) if a census block had > 25% of births to parity 4 or above
Proportion of low educated mothers Low educated mother is defined as women of reproductive age having junior high school or less education. or less. Coded 0 (High educated) if a census block had less than 1% low-educated mothers; Coded 1 (Middle educated) if 1–40%; and Coded 2 (Low educated) if > 40%
Proportion of low socio-economic households Household socio-economic status is divided into five quintile categories: (1) very poor, (2) poor, (3) middle, (4) rich, and (5) very rich. Low socio-economic household is defined a household in category ‘very poor’ or ‘poor’. Coded as 0 (Rich) if a census block had less than 1% low socio-economic households; Coded 1 (Middle) if the proportion of poor or very poor household was 1–49%; Coded 2 (Poor) if the proportion of very poor/poor households was 50% or more
District hospital population density Number of hospitals per 1,000,000 district population. Coded 0 (Low) if the block census district hospital population density was less than 5 per 1,000,000 population; Coded 1 (Middle) if more than 15 per 1,000,000 population; and Coded 2 (High) if 5–15 per 1,000,000 population
Sub-district health center population density Number of community health centers per 100,000 sub-district population. Coded 0 (Low) if the block census sub-district health center density was 5 or less per 100,000 population; Coded 1 (High) if more than 5 sub-district health centers per 100,000 population
Sub-district physician population density Number of physicians per 100,000 sub-district population. Coded 0 (Low) if the block census sub-district physician density was 8 or less per 100,000 population; Coded 1 (High) if more than 8 physicians per 100,000 population
Village midwife population density Number of midwives per 10,000 village population. Coded 0 (Low) if the block census village midwife density was 0.85 or less midwives per 10,000 population; Coded 1 (High) if more than 0.85 midwives per 10,000 population
Village TBA population density Number of traditional birth attendants per 10,000 village population. Coded 0 (Low) if the block census village TBA density was less than 1 TBAs per 10,000 population; Coded 1 (Middle) if 1–4 TBAs per 10,000 population; Coded 2 (High) if more than 4 TBAs per 10,000 population
Island group Coded 0 if the census block was located on the islands of Java or Bali; Coded 1 otherwise
Urban–rural Coded 0 if the block census was located in an urban area; Coded 1 otherwise