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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of Tibetan Nomadic Women, 2014 and 2016

From: Nomadic Tibetan women’s reproductive health: findings from cross-sectional surveys with a hard-to-reach population

  2014 Site A 2016 Site B
n = 193 N = 298
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Mean age of respondents (range; median) 36.9 (21–50; 37) years 41.0 (18–55; 42) years
 Marital status   
  Never married 5.2% 4.4%
  Married 82.4% 86.2%
  Divorced 8.8% 5.1%
  Widowed 3.6% 4.4%
 Educational attainment   
  % reporting 0 years 80.2% 72.0%
  Average number of years (median)a 5.5 years (6) 4.3 years (4)
 Household wealth (asset score: 0–4) 1.9 (0–4; 0.8) 2.2 (0–4; 0.7)
 Enrollment in New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS), % 83.3% 83.9%
Pregnancy and birth histories Mean (range; median)  
 Average number of pregnancies 3.0 (1–7; 3) 2.4 (0–8; 2)
 Average number of live births 2.7 (0–6; 3) 2.1 (0–6; 2)
 Age at first sex 17.1 (11–24; 17) 18.2 (7–27; 18)
 Age at first birth 21.0 (16–33; 20) 20.8 (13–37; 20)
 Ever had a miscarriage, % 16.1% 10%
 Ever had an abortionb 0.5% 14.5%
Contraceptive use
 Report ever use of contraception 94.3% 83.5%
 Report current use of contraception 82.9%c 55.9%d
  IUD 73.8% 77.4%e
  Tubal ligationf 22.5% 8.8%
  Pill 1.3% 6.6%
  Condom 1.9% 5.8%
  Diaphragm 0.6%
  Injection 1.5%
  1. aAmong women with any education
  2. bQuestions were asked differently between the two surveys. The 2014 survey asked women to report “How many times a pregnancy ended with an abortion?” The 2016 survey asked women to report each pregnancy first, then to report the outcome of each pregnancy
  3. cSurvey did not ascertain current pregnancy status of women
  4. dN = 250 who reported current contraceptive use. Omitted 5 women who were currently pregnant (n = 245)
  5. e2 women who reported IUD and condom use were included in the IUD category
  6. fTwo women who reported current use of injection and tubal ligation were recoded as having had a tubal ligation