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Table 1 Household level sample characteristics for women of reproductive age by modern contraceptive use status

From: Women’s empowerment, intrahousehold influences, and health system design on modern contraceptive use in rural Mali: a multilevel analysis of cross-sectional survey data

Household level characteristic Modern users
N = 626
Non modern users
N = 13,357
All women
N = 14,032
n % n % n %
Household size       
 Median/IQR 6 4, 9 6 4, 9 6 4, 9
 Missing 1 0.2 27 0.2 28 0.2
Distance to health center       
 < 2 km 243 38.8 2455 18.4 2708 19.3
 2–4.99 km 149 23.8 3327 24.9 3489 24.9
 5–6.99 km 104 16.6 3159 23.7 3273 23.3
 7–9.99 km 52 8.3 2527 18.9 2584 18.4
 ≥ 10 61 9.7 1426 10.7 1494 10.7
 Missing 17 2.7 463 3.5 484 3.5
Household wealth quintilea       
 Poorest 85 13.6 2294 17.2 2382 17.0
 Poor 108 17.3 2479 18.6 2591 18.5
 Middle 111 17.7 2589 19.4 2709 19.3
 Rich 139 22.2 2844 21.3 2996 21.4
 Richest 175 28.0 2983 22.3 3178 22.7
 Missing 8 1.3 168 1.3 176 1.3
Water and sanitationb       
 Unimproved toilet facilities 235 37.5 6869 51.4 7127 50.8
 Improved toilet facilities 388 62.0 6437 48.2 6851 48.8
 Missing 3 0.5 51 0.4 54 0.4
 Unimproved water source 150 24.0 6118 45.8 6284 44.8
 Improved water source 476 76.0 7237 54.2 7746 55.2
 Missing 0 0 2 0.0 2 0.0
Food insecurity in past 30 days       
 Little to no hunger in the household 554 88.5 11,685 87.5 12,280 87.5
 Moderate hunger in the household 45 7.2 932 7.0 980 7.0
 Severe hunger in the household 25 4.0 725 5.4 755 5.4
 Missing 2 0.3 15 0.1 17 0.1
CHW services available       
 None 469 74.9 9148 68.5 9649 68.8
 Satellite villagec 33 5.3 1868 14.0 1908 13.6
 Posted village 124 19.8 2341 17.5 2475 17.6
Health catchment area       
 Dimbal 89 14.2 3051 22.8 3145 22.4
 Lessagou 111 17.7 2083 15.6 2195 15.6
 Doundé 68 10.9 1684 12.6 1756 12.5
 Ende 89 14.2 639 4.8 728 5.2
 Soubala 35 5.6 2371 17.8 2407 17.2
 Kanibozon 128 20.5 1302 9.8 1448 10.3
 Koulongon 106 16.9 2227 16.7 2353 16.8
  1. aHousehold wealth quintile here excludes water, sanitation, and hygiene measures, which are reported separately
  2. bWe used the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation harmonized survey questions and definitions to define improved drinking water and improved sanitation [39]
  3. cSatellite villages are within the CHW’s catchment area, 5 km or less of the village where the CHW has a fixed site (posted village)