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Table 5 Three-level mixed-effects logistic regression modeling associations between individual, household, and community level factors and women’s modern contraceptive use

From: Women’s empowerment, intrahousehold influences, and health system design on modern contraceptive use in rural Mali: a multilevel analysis of cross-sectional survey data

Variables n % Adjusted OR (95% CI) p valueb
Individual level     
 Age in years      < 0.0001
  15–19 1839 13.1 1.0 Ref
  20–24 2377 16.9 2.37 (1.52, 3.68)  < 0.001
  25–29 2746 19.6 1.89 (1.18, 3.04) 0.008
  30–34 2447 17.4 2.29 (1.39, 3.77) 0.001
  35–39 2998 14.2 1.97 (1.17, 3.32) 0.010
  40–44 1499 10.7 1.31 (0.75, 2.27) 0.342
  45–49 1126 8.0 0.80 (0.43, 1.49) 0.485
 Number of living children     0.0053
  None 2376 17.0 1.0 Ref
  1–2 3858 27.5 1.52 (1.05, 2.20) 0.028
  3–4 3674 26.2 1.42 (0.95, 2.13) 0.084
  5–6 2688 19.2 1.60 (1.04, 2.46) 0.031
  7 +  1416 10.1 2.39 (1.49, 3.83)  < 0.001
 Marital status     0.0501
  Not currently married 1341 9.6 1.0 Ref
  Polygynous 5409 38.6 1.61 (0.97, 2.67) 0.067
  Monogamous 7272 52.9 1.79 (1.09, 2.92) 0.020
 Education     
  None 12,515 89.3 1.0 Ref
  Any 1499 10.7 3.28 (2.52, 4.27)  < 0.001
 Participates in paid labor     
  No 12,111 86.3 1.0 Ref
  Yes 1917 13.7 1.71 (1.35, 2.17)  < 0.001
 Mobility     0.0028
  Been to no place 4767 34.1 1.0 Ref
  Been to any place but none alone 2498 17.9 0.58 (0.42, 0.79 0.001
  Been to any place alone 6728 48.1 0.82 (0.64, 1.03) 0.093
 Spousal violence     
  Not tolerated 3853 28.1 1.0 Ref
  Tolerated 9872 71.9 1.00 (0.80, 1.25) 0.978
 Decision-making     
  None 10,210 73.0 1.0 Ref
  Any 3769 27.0 1.29 (1.04, 1.60) 0.019
Household level     
 Someone else in the household using modern contraception     
  No 13,682 97.7 1.0 Ref
  Yes 324 2.3 3.04 (1.95, 4.73)  < 0.001
 Distance to health centerc      < 0.0001
  < 2 km 2859 20.4 1.0 Ref
  2–4.99 km 3586 25.6 0.50 (0.33, 0.75) 0.001
  5–6.99 km 3329 23.7 0.33 (0.20, 0.53)  < 0.001
  7–9.99 km 2677 19.1 0.33 (0.19, 0.55)  < 0.001
  ≥ 10 1581 11.3 0.70 (0.38, 1.31) 0.266
 Food insecurity     
  None 11,931 85.1 1.0 Ref
  Any 2084 14.9 1.05 (0.78, 1.41) 0.745
 Wealth quintiled     0.4582
  Richest 2385 17.2 1.0 Ref
  Rich 2592 18.7 1.04 (0.79, 1.37) 0.788
  Middle 2689 19.4 0.91 (0.68, 1.23) 0.554
  Poor 2997 21.6 0.86 (0.64, 1.18) 0.354
  Poorest 3193 23.0 0.78 (0.55, 1.09) 0.140
Community level     
 CHW services available     0.2920
  None 9649 68.8 1.0  
  Satellite village 1908 13.6 0.81 (0.48, 1.39) 0.452
  Posted village 2475 17.6 1.27 (0.82, 1.97) 0.291
 Health catchment areae      < 0.0001
  Dimbal 3145 22.4 1.0 Ref
  Lessagou 2195 15.6 1.90 (1.14, 3.17) 0.014
  Doundé 1756 12.5 1.75 (1.00, 3.07) 0.051
  Ende 728 5.2 3.28 (1.67, 6.44) 0.001
  Soubala 2407 17.2 0.56 (0.30, 1.03) 0.063
  Kanibozon 1448 10.3 4.05 (2.36, 6.97)  < 0.001
  Koulongon 2353 16.8 1.86 (1.10, 3.14) 0.020
Random effects     
 Village-cluster level (level three) variance (SD) 0.22 (0.09)
 Compound-within-cluster level (level two) variance (SD) 0.98 (0.29)
 Level three ICC (95% CI)   0.05 (0.02, 0.10)
 Level two ICC (95% CI)   0.27 (0.18, 0.38)
Log likelihood   − 2081.39
  1. aN = 13,376 complete cases, or 95% of all women in the analytic sample
  2. bValue provided in line with the categorical variable name is the result of the likelihood ratio test
  3. cVillage distance to health center substituted if household distance to health center was missing (N = 560)
  4. dHousehold wealth quintile in the regression models includes water, sanitation, and hygiene measures, as these are not explored separately
  5. eLargest health catchment area in terms of sample population is used as the reference category