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Table 2 Protective factors for kunika

From: Causes of short birth interval (kunika) in Bauchi State, Nigeria: systematizing local knowledge with fuzzy cognitive mapping

Categories of causes of no-kunika Composite map Women’s maps Men’s maps LGA maps State maps
CNI # of maps CNI # of maps CNI # of maps CNI # of maps CNI # of maps
Total maps 24 12 12 1 1
Reduce frequent sex 0.95 (1) 24 1.00 (1) 12 0.79 (1) 12 0.35 (2) 1 0.08 1
Using modern methods of family planning 0.75 (2) 24 0.99 (2) 12 0.49 (2) 12 0.30 (3) 1 0.25 (4) 1
Using non-invasive family planning methods 0.42 (3) 20 0.75 (3) 12 0.13 8 0.05 1 0.00 0
Family dynamics 0.35 (4) 22 0.60 (4) 12 0.13 10 0.00 0 0.05 1
Better spousal communication about family planning 0.24 8 0.26 7 0.19 (4) 1 0.14 1 0.15 0
Use of health services and advice from health workers 0.22 8 0.28 2 0.14 6 0.30 (3) 1 0.28 (3) 1
Create public awareness about family planning and kunika 0.20 20 0.05 11 0.27 (3) 9 0.76 (1) 1 0.32 (2) 1
Greater male involvement 0.17 11 0.26 2 0.09 9 0.14 0 0.07 1
Increase awareness about kunika 0.16 14 0.16 7 0.13 7 0.14 1 0.08 1
Increase awareness about family planning 0.15 16 0.07 9 0.19 7 0.00 1 0.33 (1) 1
Effective family planning 0.14 22 0.18 11 0.09 11 0.00 1 0.00 1
Better socio-economic conditions 0.11 10 0.13 7 0.08 3 0.11 0 0.17 0
Prevention of forced sex 0.10 1 0.21 1 0.01 0 0.03 0 0.00 0
Reducing fertility after birth 0.04 2 0.09 2 0.00 0 0.11 0 0.02 1
Ways of increasing family planning awareness 0.03 5 0.07 5 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.13 1
Increase stigma about kunika 0.02 7 0.00 3 0.03 4 0.00 1 0.00 1
Seek advice from traditional birth attendants 0.01 1 0.03 1 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0
Belief in faith and fate 0.00 3 0.01 0 0.00 3 0.00 0 0.00 0
  1. CNI: cumulative net influence on no-kunika
  2. The numbers in brackets indicate the ranking for the first four most influential categories for each stakeholder group