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Table 3 Major factors affecting the use of PPFP methods in SSA countries at three levels*

From: The unmet needs for modern family planning methods among postpartum women in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the literature

Main themes Number of Studies Findings (multivariate analysis)
Individual level   
Women’s education (6 studies) 7 studies Decreased effect: Abraha et al. 2017 [42]; Achwoka et al. 2018 [56]; Bwazi et al. 2014 [54]; Iliyasu et al. 2018 [53]; Tegen et al. 2017 [47]; Gejo et al. 2019 [49]; Sileo et al. 2015 [58]
Women’s age 4 studies Increased effect: Abera et al. 2015 [41]; Achwoka et al. 2018 [56]; Bwazi et al. 2014 [54]; Thindwa et al. 2019[55]
Women’s parity 2 studies Increased effect: Thindwa et al. 2019[55]; Bwazi et al. 2014 [54]
Resumption of menses 7 studies Decreased effect: Abera et al., 2015 [41]; Abraha et al., 2018 [43]; Gebremedhin et al., 2018 [44]; Dona et al., 2018 [45]; Berta et al., 2018 [46]; Gejo et al., 2019 [49]; Iliyasu et al., 2018 [53]
Resumption of sexual activity 6 studies Decreased effect: Abraha et al., 2017 [42]; Abraha et al., 2018 [43]; Berta et al., 2018 [46]; Gejo et al., 2019 [49]; Iliyasu et al., 2018 [53]; Bwazi et al., 2014 [54]
Knowledge of FP methods 5 studies Increased effect: Abraha et al., 2018 [43]; Berta et al., 2018 [46]; Tegegn et al., 2017 [47]; Idowu et al., 2015 [52]; Bwazi et al., 2014 [54]
Household level   
Husband’s approval 3 studies Increased effect: Abraha et al., 2018 [43]; Berta et al., 2018 [46]; Bwazi et al., 2014 [54]
Husband’s education 2 studies Increased effect: Mengesha et al., 2015 [48]; Abraha et al., 2018 [50]
FP discussion with husband/partners, 3 studies Increased effect: Dona et al., 2018 [45]; Bwazi et al., 2014 [54]; Sileo et al., 2015 [58];
Health care facility level   
ANC 5 studies Decreased effect: Abera et al., 2015 [41]; Tegegn et al., 2017 [47]; Dona et al., 2018 [45]; Abraha et al., 2018 [50]; Achwoka et al., 2018 [56]
PNC 7 studies Increased effect: Abera et al., 2015 [41]; Dona et al., 2018 [45]; Tegegn et al., 2017[47]; Abraha et al., 2018 [50]; Achwoka et al., 2018 [56]; Abraha et al., 2017 [42]; Mengesha et al., 2015 [48]