Skip to main content

Table 6 Multivariable model assessing association between selected variables and PFDI-201, UDI-62 PFIQ-73 scores

From: A cross-sectional study on pelvic floor symptoms in women living with Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting

Variables PFDI-201 UDI-62 PFIQ-73
Mean ± SD (95% CI) p-value Mean ± SD (95% CI) p-value Mean ± SD (95% CI) p-value
Type of FGM/C       
 III 49.4 ± 8.4 (37.8 to 61.1) 19.8 ± 2.7 (14.3 to 25.2) 43.6 ± 5.8 (32.2 to 55.1)
 I, II 49.6 ± 6.8 (35.1 to 64.1) 0.985 19.2 ± 3.4 (12.4 to 26.0) 0.901 36.4 ± 7.2 (22.1 to 50.7) 0.461
Age at FGM/C   0.276   0.589   0.058
  < 1 year old 42.2 ± 8.8 (24.8 to 59.6) 17.0 ± 4.1 (8.9 to 25.1) 28.6 ± 8.7 (11.4 to 45.7)
 1–5 years old 63.8 ± 12.4 (39.2 to 88.4) 0.170 22.5 ± 5.8 (11.0 to 34.0) 0.456 32.7 ± 12.3 (8.4 to 57.0) 0.791
 6–10 years old 46.3 ± 8.0 (30.3 to 62.2) 0.743 17.6 ± 3.8 (10.2 to 25.1) 0.915 41.2 ± 7.9 (25.5 to 56.9) 0.309
  > 10 years old 75.3 ± 15.1 (45.3 to 105.2) 0.063 29.3 ± 7.1 (15.3 to 43.3) 0.140 79.2 ± 14.9 (49.7 to 108.8) 0.004
 Unknown/no answer 43.8 ± 10.8 (22.4 to 65.1) 0.908 20.1 ± 5.0 (10.1 to 30.1) 0.628 45.8 ± 10.6 (24.7 to 66.9) 0.207
Past violent events       
 Yes 61.4 ± 6.7 (48.2 to 74.7) 24.2 ± 3.1 (18.0 to 30.3) 55.1 ± 6.6 (42.0 to 68.1)
 None/no answer 39.7 ± 6.0 (27.8 to 51.6) 0.021 15.8 ± 2.8 (10.2 to 21.3) 0.057 28.9 ± 6.0 (17.1 to 40.7) 0.005
Time in Switzerland   0.108   0.507   0.013
  < 6 months 84.5 ± 16.0 (52.9 to 116.1) - 28.8 ± 7.5 (14.0 to 43.6) 85.0 ± 15.7 (53.8 to 116.2)
 6–12 months 56.7 ± 11.9 (33.0 to 80.3) 0.166 20.0 ± 5.6 (9.0 to 31.0) 0.347 40.5 ± 11.8 (17.2 to 63.9) 0.026
 12–60 months 46.9 ± 7.0 (33.0 to 60.8) 0.034 20.4 ± 3.3 (13.9 to 26.9) 0.307 44.5 ± 7.0 (30.7 to 58.2) 0.021
  > 5 years 42.0 ± 7.3 (27.5 to 56.6) 0.018 16.5 ± 3.4 (9.8 to 23.3) 0.140 27.5 ± 7.2 (13.2 to 41.8) 0.001
Age in categories   0.035   0.140   0.283
  < 25 38.6 ± 11.1 (16.5 to 60.7) 14.7 ± 5.2 (4.4 to 25.0) 31.6 ± 11.0 (9.8 to 53.4)
 25–35 42.5 ± 6.1 (30.4 to 54.7) 0.762 17.5 ± 2.9 (11.8 to 23.2) 0.652 47.6 ± 6.1 (35.6 to 59.6) 0.214
  ≥ 35 70.6 ± 9.1 (52.5 to 88.7) 0.036 27.0 ± 4.3 (18.5 to 35.4) 0.085 33.4 ± 9.0 (15.5 to 51.2) 0.906
Dichotomized BMI      
  < 25.0 44.9 ± 5.9 (33.2 to 56.7) 17.6 ± 2.8 (12.1 to 23.0) 38.7 ± 5.8 (27.1 to 50.3)
  ≥ 25.0 56.7 ± 7.7 (41.4 to 72.1) 0.265 22.7 ± 3.6 (15.6 to 29.9) 0.293 44.0 ± 7.6 (28.8 to 59.1) 0.609
Ongoing pregnancy       
 Yes 46.0 ± 7.9 (30.4 to 61.6) 21.5 ± 2.6 (16.3 to 26.6) 32.5 ± 7.8 (17.1 to 47.9)
 No 51.4 ± 5.5 (40.4 to 62.4) 0.595 15.9 ± 3.7 (8.6 to 23.2) 0.240 45.1 ± 5.5 (34.3 to 56.0) 0.206
Parity   0.609   0.452   0.021
 Nulliparous 55.4 ± 8.5 (38.6 to 72.3) 22.5 ± 4.0 (14.7 to 30.4) 60.5 ± 8.4 (43.9 to 77.1)
 Primiparous 51.0 ± 9.1 (33.0 to 69.0) 0.729 21.3 ± 4.2 (12.9 to 29.7) 0.841 36.6 ± 8.9 (18.9 to 54.3) 0.062
 Multiparous 42.7 ± 8.1 (26.6 to 58.1) 0.335 15.5 ± 3.8 (8.0 to 23.0) 0.255 24.1 ± 8.0 (8.2 to 40.0) 0.006
Previous episiotomy   0.584   0.412   0.348
 Yes 57.8 ± 9.0 (39.8 to 75.7) 23.6 ± 4.2 (15.3 to 32.0) 51.9 ± 8.9 (34.2 to 69.6)
 No 45.5 ± 5.8 (34.1 to 57.0) 0.301 17.3 ± 2.7 (12.0 to 22.7) 0.251 35.2 ± 5.7 (23.9 to 46.5) 0.151
 Unknown 52.9 ± 37.2 (− 20.8 to 126.7) 0.899 32.8 ± 17.4 (− 1.6 to 67.3) 0.385 52.6 ± 36.7 (− 20.2 to 125.4) 0.644
  1. p-values from linear regression models (multivariable analysis)
  2. Adjusted R2 of the model = 0.1513 (PFDI-20), 010,830 (UDI-6), 0.2134 (PFIQ-7)
  3. Residuals were reasonably normally distributed (visual inspection)
  4. 1Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory
  5. 2Urinary Distress Inventory
  6. 3Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire