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Table 3 Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) scores for the included studies

From: Women’s sleep position during pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

  Selection score Comparability score Exposure/Outcome score Overall score
Owusu et al. 2013 2/5 2/2 2/3 6/10
Lakshmi et al. 2017 1/4 0/2 0/3 1/9
  1. NOS adapted for cross-sectional studies was used for the Owusu et al. study
  2. Maximum scores: selection = 5, comparability = 2, outcome = 3, and overall = 10
  3. High risk of bias: score ≤ 3
  4. Medium risk of bias: score 4–7
  5. Low risk of bias: score ≥ 8
  6. The traditional NOS tool was used for the Lakshmi et al. study
  7. Maximum scores: selection = 4, comparability = 2, exposure = 3 and overall = 9
  8. High risk of bias: score ≤ 3
  9. Medium risk of bias: score 4–6
  10. Low risk of bias: score ≥ 7