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Table 3 Birth defects among adolescent mothers 12–19 and mothers 20–34 years of age

From: Comparative analysis of perinatal outcomes and birth defects amongst adolescent and older Ugandan mothers: evidence from a hospital-based surveillance database

ICD-10 RCPCH codea Birth defects Number of defects cOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)d p-value
   12–19 years 20–34 years    
Neural tube defects (NTD)*   9 95 0.77 (0.39–1.52) 0.63 (0.27–1.52) 0.311
Q00.0 Anencephaly 2 27 0.60 (0.14–2.52) 0.64 (0.14–2.90) 0.559
Q00.1 Craniorachischisis 0 2 na na na
Q01.0–Q01.2, Q01.8–Q01.9 Encephalocele 4 11 2.94 (0.94–9.24) 1.43 (0.27–7.43) 0.673
Q05.0–Q05.9 Spina bifida 3 56 0.43 (0.14–1.38) 0.40 (0.08–1.67) 0.202
Q02 Microcephaly 3 6 4.04 (1.01–16.17) β 4.54 (0.81–25.39) 0.085
Malformations of eyes and ears 5 28 1.44 (0.56–3.74) 3.09 (1.01–9.42) 0.047
Q11–Q11.1; Q11.2 Anophthalmia; Microphthalmia 3 12 2.02 (0.57–7.16) 3.21 (0.71–14.38) 0.128
Q16.0; Q17.2 Anotia; Microtia 2 16 1.01 (0.23–4.40) 2.94 (0.55–15.72) 0.206
Orofacial cleftsb 9 51 1.43 (0.70–2.90) 1.28 (0.57–2.91) 0.549
Q35.1–Q35.9, Q38.5, Q87.0 Cleft palate 2 13 1.24 (0.28–5.51) 0.71 (0.08–6.12) 0.752
Q36.0, Q36.9 Cleft lip alone 3 12 2.02 (0.57–7.16) 2.54 (0.59–11.50) 0.213
Q37.0–Q37.9 Cleft lip + palate 4 26 1.24 (0.43–3.56) 1.09 (0.35–3.41) 0.877
Q42.3 Imperforate anus 1 20 0.40 (0.05–3.01) 1.06 (0.12–9.08) 0.960
Q54.0–Q54.3, Q54.8–Q54.9 Hypospadiasc 10 104 0.75 (0.39–1.44) 0.63 (0.29–1.34) 0.230
Musculoskeletal system* 45 214 1.70 (1.23–2.35)β 1.69 (1.15–2.50) 0.008
Q66.0, Q66.8 Talipes equinovarus 22 128 1.41 (0.89–2.22) 1.33 (0.77–2.30) 0.309
Q71.0–Q73.8 Total limb reduction 8 44 1.47 (0.69–3.12) 1.75 (0.67–4.56) 0.249
Q79.2 Omphalocele 8 41 1.58 (0.74–3.37) 2.17 (0.92–5.18) 0.078
Q79.3 Gastroschisis 8 14 4.62 (1.93–11.02)β 3.20 (1.12–9.13) 0.030
  1. * Some infants had more than one type of defect in the neural tube defects and musculoskeletal system categories
  2. aInternational Classification of Disease 10, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (ICD-10 RCPCH), used to specifically clasify the types of defects included  [49]
  3. bExcluded Q36.1 (medial Cleft lip) because it is suggestive of underlying brain malformation (holoprosencephaly) and chromosomal syndrome [50]
  4. βStatistically significant at p<0.05
  5. na - Prevalence, cOR, aOR, and 95% confidence intervals that cannot be calculated
  6. cDenominator for males: N=51,922; 12-19 Years (n= 5,896); 20-34 Years (n= 46,026)
  7. dCovariates for the birth defect models: parity and initiation time of prenatal care