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Table 2 Extracted categories and sub-categories from the interview data

From: 'Does HPV affect my fertility?' Reproductive concerns of HPV-positive women: a qualitative study

Example of codes Sub-categories Categories
- Ambiguity about the effect of the virus on male fertility
- Asking about the need for male GWs' treatment before conception
a. Adverse effects of HPV on male fertility 1. Concerns about fertility potential
- The effects of HPV on reproductive hormones and menstrual cycle
- Concerns about infertility due to persistent high-risk HPV and subsequent cancer
- Attributing the failure of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to the HPV
b. Negative effect of HPV on female fertility
- Fear of cervical infertility following invasive treatments (cryotherapy, LEEP, and conization)
- The impact of the vaccine on hormones and the menstrual cycle
- Fear of Infertility following HPV Vaccination
- Concerns about the safety of HPV Vaccine in pregnancy
c. Threatened female fertility Association with treatments and vaccine
- Concerns about increasing genital Warts during pregnancy
- Worrying about weakening immune system during pregnancy
- Limitation of performing diagnostic and therapeutic interventions (colposcopy-biopsy) in pregnancy
- Postponing pregnancy for fear of progression of the disease
a. Threatened mother's health during pregnancy 2. Pregnancy concerns
- Fear of miscarriage due to HPV
- Concerns about preterm birth due to HPV
- Performing the cesarean section due to HPV
b. Adverse pregnancy outcomes
- Fear of negative effects of GWs' medications on the fetus
- Fear of transferring HPV to the fetus
c. Harm to the fetus
- Worrying about infecting the infant via breast milk and nursing a. Fear of infecting newborn 3. Non-pregnancy reproductive concerns
- Not using condom
- Worries about the negative effect of Hormonal contraception on abnormalities
- Need to a safe method of contraception
b. Concerns related to contraception method
- Concerns about the effect of the virus on premature menopause c. Fear of premature menopause
- Attributing family history of gynecologic cancer to HPV d. Fear of cervical cancer
- Fear of cervical cancer following HPV infection e. Fear of familial cancer due to HPV