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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of women's participation in decision making and socio-background characteristics

From: Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal

Socio-demographic Characteristics Own health care Major household purchases Purchases daily household needs Visits to her family or relatives
  Odds Ratios 95% CI Odds Ratios 95% CI Odds Ratios 95% CI Odds Ratios 95% CI
Age         
15-19 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
20-24 2.88*** (2.33, 3.56) 2.95*** (2.37, 3.67) 2.88*** (2.34, 3.55) 2.67*** (2.18, 3.26)
25-29 4.60*** (3.73, 5.67) 5.70*** (4.60, 7.08) 6.29*** (5.12, 7.74) 4.82*** (3.95, 5.89)
30-34 5.28*** (4.25, 6.56) 8.97*** (7.17, 11.23) 9.65*** (7.77, 11.99) 7.13*** (5.78, 8.79)
35-39 6.02*** (4.83, 7.50) 10.22*** (8.13, 12.84) 11.72*** (9.37, 14.65) 8.55*** (6.90, 10.60)
40-44 6.91*** (5.52, 8.65) 13.77*** (10.87, 17.45) 13.88*** (11.01, 17.49) 11.95*** (9.54, 14.97)
45-49 7.43*** (5.88, 9.40) 13.48*** (10.53, 17.27) 13.39*** (10.50, 17.07) 13.35*** (10.49, 16.99)
Employment (past 12 months)         
Not employed 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Employed for cash 1.91*** (1.67, 2.19) 2.69*** (2.34, 3.08) 2.84*** (2.46, 3.28) 2.84*** (2.46, 3.26)
Employed not for cash 0.91 (0.81, 1.03) 0.75*** (0.67, 0.85) 0.76*** (0.67, 0.86) 0.84** (0.74, 0.95)
Number of living children         
0 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
1-2 2.93*** (2.46, 3.49) 3.45*** (2.89, 4.12) 3.75*** (3.16, 4.46) 3.09*** (2.62, 3.65)
3-4 4.13*** (3.46, 4.93) 6.43*** (5.37, 7.70) 7.29*** (6.10, 8.71) 5.53*** (4.66, 6.57)
5+ 4.35*** (3.57, 5.29) 6.17*** (5.05, 7.55) 7.92*** (6.48, 9.69) 5.92*** (4.87, 7.19)
Residence         
Urban 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Rural 0.70*** (0.62, 0.79) 0.58*** (0.51, 0.66) 0.48*** (0.42, 0.55) 0.57*** (0.50, 0.65)
Ecological zone         
Mountain 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Hill 1.32** (1.10, 1.57) 1.50*** (1.26, 1.79) 1.74*** (1.46, 2.07) 1.68*** (1.41, 2.01)
Terai 1.05 (0.89, 1.26) 1.12 (0.94, 1.33) 1.16 (0.98, 1.38) 1.04 (0.88, 1.24)
Development region         
Eastern 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Central 1.01 (0.90, 1.14) 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) 1.01 (0.90, 1.15) 0.97 (0.85, 1.09)
Western 1.28*** (1.12, 1.46) 0.89 (0.77, 1.02) 0.82** (0.71, 0.94) 0.97 (0.84, 1.11)
Mid-western 0.98 (0.83, 1.14) 0.85 (0.73, 1.00) 0.82* (0.70, 0.97) 1.13 (0.96, 1.32)
Far-western 0.88 (0.75, 1.02) 0.92 (0.79, 1.06) 0.55*** (0.47, 0.64) 0.75*** (0.64, 0.87)
Education         
No Education 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Primary 0.89 (0.79, 1.01) 0.79*** (0.70, 0.89) 0.81** (0.72, 0.91) 0.77*** (0.68, 0.87)
Some secondary 0.98 (0.87, 1.10) 0.73*** (0.65, 0.82) 0.79*** (0.71, 0.89) 0.82** (0.73, 0.92)
Higher (SLC and above) 1.58** (1.20, 2.07) 1.41* (1.07, 1.86) 1.34* (1.01, 1.78) 1.38* (1.04, 1.84)
Wealth quintile         
Poorest 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Poorer 1.16* (1.01, 1.34) 1.03 (0.89, 1.18) 1.04 (0.90, 1.19) 0.96 (0.84, 1.11)
Middle 0.88 (0.77, 1.01) 0.77*** (0.67, 0.89) 0.76*** (0.66, 0.87) 0.73*** (0.64, 0.84)
Richer 0.95 (0.83, 1.10) 0.91 (0.79, 1.05) 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) 0.87 (0.75, 1.00)
Richest 1.33*** (1.16, 1.53) 1.65*** (1.43, 1.90) 1.88*** (1.63, 2.18) 1.47*** (1.28, 1.70)
  1. Notes: OR = odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.