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Table 3 Bivariate associations between selected risk and protective factors and community maternal mortality ratios

From: Contraceptive use and maternal mortality in Indonesia: a community-level ecological analysis

Factors N Coef 95% CI
Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) 40,728 − 0.142* − 0.341 − 0.263
Contraceptive use level category     
Low (CPR < 40%) 9,465 0.000
Middle (CPR 40–59%) 12,254 − 0.041 − 0.091 0.011
High (CPR > 60%) 19,009 − 0.066* − 0.112 − 0.019
Proportion of high-risk births-maternal age     
Low (< 5%) 24,445 0.000
High (≥ 5%) 16,283 0.086* 0.048 0.123
Proportion of high-risk births-parity     
Low (< 5%) 22,994 0.000
Middle (5–25%) 8,027 0.134* 0.086 0.182
High (> 25%) 9,707 0.239* 0.194 0.283
Proportion of low educated mother (LEM)     
High education (LEM < 1%) 16,847 0.000
Middle education (LEM 1–40%) 12,310 0.116* 0.072 0.159
Low education (LEM > 40%) 11,571 0.164* 0.119 0.208
Proportion low socio-economic households (LSE)     
Rich (LSE ≤ 1%) 5,846 0.000
Middle (LSE 1–50%) 20,376 0.128* 0.074 0.183
Poor (LSE > 50%) 14,506 0.346* 0.289 0.403
District hospital density     
Low (< 5 per 1,000,000 population) 10,390 0.000
Middle (5–15 per 1,000,000 population) 14,799 − 0.098* − 0.146 − 0.052
High (> 15 per 1,000,000 population) 15,539 − 0.162* − 0.208 − 0.115
Sub-district health center density     
Low (5 or less per 100,000 population) 17,244 0.000
High (> 5 per 100,000 population) 23,484 0.078* 0.041 0.116
Sub-district health physician density     
Low (8 or less per 100,000 population) 21,979 0.000
High (> 8 per 100,000 population) 18,749 − 0.057* − 0.093 − 0.021
Village midwife density     
Low (0.85 or less per 10,000 population) 17,575 0.000
High (> 0.85 per 10,000 population) 23,153 0.052* 0.015 0.089
Village TBA density     
Low (< 1 per 10,000 population) 17,859 0.000
Middle (1–4 per 10,000 population) 12,524 0.061* 0.018 0.109
High (5 or more per 10,000 population) 10,345 0.226* 0.143 0.221
Island Group     
Java-Bali 16,005 0.000
Outside of Java-Bali 24,723 0.226* 0.189 0.264
Urban–Rural     
Urban area 19,169 0.000
Rural area 21,559 0.067* 0.031 0.104
  1. *p < 0.05