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Table 4 Results of log-linear regressions of maternal mortality risk and protective factors on community maternal mortality ratios—full and reduced form models

From: Contraceptive use and maternal mortality in Indonesia: a community-level ecological analysis

Factors Full model Final model
Coef. 95% CI Coef. 95% CI
Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR − 0.064 − 0.147 0.081 − 0.073* − 0.154 − 0.009
Proportion of high-risk births—maternal age      
Low (<5%) 0    
High (≥5%) 0.028 − 0.01 0.067    
Proportion of high-risk births—parity      
Low (<5%) 0 0
Middle (5–25%) 0.058* 0.009 0.109 0.076* 0.027 0.125
High (>25%) 0.125* 0.077 0.173 0.142* 0.094 0.189
Proportion of low educated mother (LEM)      
High education (LEM <1%) 0    
Middle education (LEM 1–40%) 0.028 − 0.018 0.074    
Low education (LEM >40%) 0.044 − 0.006 0.094    
Proportion of low socio-economic households (LSE)      
Rich (LSE ≤1%) 0 0
Middle (LSE 1–50%) 0.091* 0.032 0.151 0.077* 0.019 0.134
Poor (LSE >50%) 0.214* 0.142 0.287 0.193* 0.126 0.261
District hospital density      
Low (<5 per 1,000,000 population) 0 0
Middle (5–15 per 1,000,000 population) − 0.032 − 0.079 0.016 − 0.031 − 0.078 0.018
High (>15 per 1,000,000 population) 0.059* − 0.113 − 0.007 − 0.045* − 0.096 − 0.006
Sub-district health center density      
Low (5 or less per 100,000 population) 0    
High (>5 per 100,000 population) − 0.032 − 0.074 0.009    
Sub-district physician density      
Low (8 or less per 100,000 population) 0    
High (>8 per 100,000 population) 0.004 − 0.038 0.048    
Village midwife density      
Low (0.85 or less per 10,000 population) 0    
High (>0.85 per 10,000 population) − 0.035 − 0.078 0.008    
Village TBA density       
Low (<1 per 10,000 population) 0 0
Middle (1–4 per 10,000 population) 0.035* 0.011 0.081 0.025 − 0.02 0.069
High (5+ per 10,000 population) 0.120* 0.067 0.173 0.103* 0.053 0.154
Region       
Java-Bali 0 0
Outside of Java-Bali 0.132* 0.086 0.177 0.113* 0.072 0.156
Urban–rural       
Urban area 0    
Rural area − 0.052 − 0.099 0.005    
  1. *p < 0.05